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By alphabetical order :)
Adam Albrecht Aivazovsky Ivan Konstantinovich Aladar Padly Backer Jacob de Backhuysen Ludolph Balen I Hendrick van Barker of Bath Thomas Bassano Jacopo Bassano II Francesco Baumgartner-Stoiloff Adolf (Constantin) Beer I. de Begeyn Abraham Jansz. Benois Albert Nikolayevich Benois Nikolai Leontjewitsch Berchem Nicholaes Berckheyde Gerrit Adriaensz. Blaas Julius von Bloemaert Abraham Blommaert Abraham Bogaert Hendrick Bogoliubov Alexei Petrovich Boilly Louis Léopold Boissieu Jean-Jacques de Boitmanis Ulrihs Bordone Paris Borisov Alexander Alekseevich Bossche Balthasar van den Bossoli Carlo Boudewijns Adraen Frans Bough Samuel Bray Jan de Brewer Henry Charles Bristow Edmund Broeck Elias van den Brueghel II Jan Bryullov Karl Pavlovich Burhardt Feodor Karlovich Carlone Giovanni Andrea Casanova Francesco Giuseppe Casteels Pauwels Castro Lorenzo A. Cats Jacob Charlemagne Adolphe Josefovich Charlemagne Joseph Josefovich Codde Pieter Jacobs Cole George Conca Sebastiano Conca Tomasso Maria Cooper Thomas Sidney Cotes, R.A. Francis Cotman Frederick George Craesbeeck Joos van Crampton Sir John Cranach the Elder Lucas Creara Sante Crespi Giuseppe Maria Crome John David Giovanni della Bella Stefano Dmitriev-Kavkazsky Lev Evgrafovich Dobuzhinsky Mstislav Valerianovich Droochsloot Joost Cornelisz Dubovskoy Nikolai Nikanorovich Dujardin Karel Duvieux Henri Ellis Tristram English School Everdingen Allaert van Faed R.S.A. John Feldmann Valentin Augustowitsch Ferg Franz de Paula Filippov Konstantin Nikolaevich Fischer Johann Georg Paul Florentine School Franken Paul von French School Frost George Albert Gabashvili Giorgy Ivanovich (Gigo) Gabbiani Antonio Domenico Gagen Dominik Ernestovich Gascars Henri Gedlek Ludwig Gerlach Otto Goeree Jan Gordon Sir Thomas Edward Gorschelt Fedor Federovich Goyen Jan van Gradovsky N. Grigoriev Boris Dmitrievich Grimaldi, il Bolognese Giovanni Francesco Grimmer Abel Groningen Jan Swart van Guardi Giacomo Guardi Gianantonio Hackaert Jan Hackert Jacob Philipp Harding James Duffield Harlamoff Alexei Alekseevich Havell William Herring Jnr John Frederick Hilair Jean-Baptiste Hoet Gerard Ibbetson Julius Caesar Issupoff Alexei Vladimirovich Ivanov Ivan Andreevich Jankowsky Johann Wilhelm Kalf Willem Kapustin Grigorij Ivanovich Karazin Nikolai Nikolaevich Karlsonn Konstantin Kennington Eric Keuninck the Elder Kerstiaen de Key Adriaen Thomasz. Klodt von Jurgensburg Baron Mikhail Konstantinovich Koerner Ernest Karl Eugen Kolchin Petr Petrovich Kolesnikov Stepan Feodorovich Kollmann Karl Ivanovich Kondratenko Gavril Pavlovich Kotov Nikolai Grigorievich Krachkovsky Josef Evstafievich Kravchenko Aleksey Ilyich Lagorio Lev Felixovich Lallemand Atributed to Jean-Baptiste Lancerey Yevgeny Alexandrovich Landseer Charles Langer Olaf Viggo Peter Lattry Mikhail Pelopidovich Le Prince Jean-Baptiste Lee Frederick Richard Lingelbach Johannes Loo Carle van Loutherbourg, R.A. Philipe-Jacques de Lovatti Count Matteo Ludoviki Pierre Alexandrovich Parisot, called Luti Benedetto Maes Nicolaes Maevsky Mechislav Silvesterovich Maggiotto Domenico Maistre Count Xavier de Mak Paul Makovsky Konstantin Egorovich Makovsky Vladimir Egorovich Maliavin Philip Andreyevich Malyshev Nikolai Tarasievich Man Cornelis de Martos Nikita Ivanovich Martynov Andrey Yefimovich Massys Jan Mathauser Josef McConnell William Michallon Achille Etna Mieris Willem van Molenaer II Jan Molijn Pieter de Mols Robert Charles Gustave Laurens Momper Philippe de Montferrand Auguste Ricard De Moor Carel de Morandi Giovanni Maria Moucheron Frederik de Nash Frederick Neapolitan School Neeffs The Elder Pieter Neyn Pieter de Nikitin Ivan Nikitich Opitz Georg Emmanuel Orizzonte Jan Frans van Bloemen, called Orlov J Orlovsky Alexander Osipovich Ovsyannikov Sergey Osipovich Palmieri Pietro Giacomo Pantoja de la Cruz Juan Parme Jean-Antoine Julien, called Julien de Patersson Benjamin Pavlikevitch J Pellegrini Giovanni Antonio Perez, von Baron Josef Berres Pierre Jean-Baptist-Marie Pillement Jean-Baptiste Piola Domenico Pocock Nicholas Poelenburch Cornelis van Poerson Charles Poplavsky Ludvig Ludvigovich Premazzi Luigi Ossipovich Preziosi Count Amadeo Prianishnikov Ivan Petrovich Quaglio Franz Repin Ilya Yefimovich Repin Yuri Illich Repton Humphrey Richards John Inigo Rocca Michele Roepel Coenraet Rogier Camille Rombouts Salomon Romney George Roubaud Franz Alekseevich Rozhankovsky Pavel Stepanovich Russian School Ruysdael Salomon van Sabatelli Luigi Savitsky Georgy Konstantinovich Schmerling Oskar Schmidt Genrikh Genrikhovich Schongauer Martin School Mid-Sixteenth Century Anglo-Netherlandish School, c.1535 Flemish Schreyer Christian Adolf Schwarz Christoph Sellaer Vincent Shishkin Ivan Ivanovich Siemiradzki Henryk Simpson William Snyders Frans Snyders and Studio Frans Sokolov Pyotr Petrovich Solimena Francesco South Netherlandish School Spranger Bartholomäus Stanfield George Clarkson Stanfield RA Clarkson Stevaerts Palamedes Palamedesz., called Stevens Stone Frank Stoop Maerten Strechine Stephanie von Sustris Lambert Sverchkov Nicholai Egorovich Svetoslavsky Sergei Ivanovich Teniers II David Test Artist Tiepolo Giovanni Battista Tintoretto Domenico Toorenvliet Jacob Traballesi Bartolommeo Trutovsky Konstantin Alexandrovich Turner, R.A. Joseph Mallord William Tweenhuysen II Helmich von Uden Lucas van Valckenborch Lucas van Valentin Emile Vanvitelli Circle of Gaspar van Wittel, called Varley John Vasilev Ivan Vasnetsov Apollinary Mikhailovich Velde Adriaen van de Velde Esaias van de Velde the Younger Willem van de Venetian School Verburgh Dionijs Vereschagin Petr Petrovich Verschuring Hendrik Verschuur Wouter Vickers Alfred Gomersal Vignali Jacopo Villiers de l'Isle Adam Emile Samoilovich Visotsky Konstantin Semeonovich Vladimirov Ivan Alekseevich Vlieger Simon Jacobsz de Voloshin Maksimilian Aleksandrovich Vorobiev Sokrat Maksimovich Vrancx Sebastian Ward James Watteau, called Watteau of Lille Louis-Joseph Webb James Weiss Joseph Andreas Wet I Jacob Willemsz. de Wheatley, R.A. Francis Wijnants Jan Wilson Alexander Wingfield James Digman Wouwerman Philips Wtewael Joachim Anthonisz. Wyck Thomas Yakovlev Aleksandr Evgen'evich Zeeman Reinier Nooms, called Zhukovsky Rudolf Kazimirovich Zommer Richard Karlovich Zucchi Antonio
Adam Albrecht Aivazovsky Ivan Konstantinovich Aladar Padly Backer Jacob de Backhuysen Ludolph Balen I Hendrick van Barker of Bath Thomas Bassano Jacopo Bassano II Francesco Baumgartner-Stoiloff Adolf (Constantin) Beer I. de Begeyn Abraham Jansz. Benois Albert Nikolayevich Benois Nikolai Leontjewitsch Berchem Nicholaes Berckheyde Gerrit Adriaensz. Blaas Julius von Bloemaert Abraham Blommaert Abraham Bogaert Hendrick Bogoliubov Alexei Petrovich Boilly Louis Léopold Boissieu Jean-Jacques de Boitmanis Ulrihs Bordone Paris Borisov Alexander Alekseevich Bossche Balthasar van den Bossoli Carlo Boudewijns Adraen Frans Bough Samuel Bray Jan de Brewer Henry Charles Bristow Edmund Broeck Elias van den Brueghel II Jan Bryullov Karl Pavlovich Burhardt Feodor Karlovich Carlone Giovanni Andrea Casanova Francesco Giuseppe Casteels Pauwels Castro Lorenzo A. Cats Jacob Charlemagne Adolphe Josefovich Charlemagne Joseph Josefovich Codde Pieter Jacobs Cole George Conca Sebastiano Conca Tomasso Maria Cooper Thomas Sidney Cotes, R.A. Francis Cotman Frederick George Craesbeeck Joos van Crampton Sir John Cranach the Elder Lucas Creara Sante Crespi Giuseppe Maria Crome John David Giovanni della Bella Stefano Dmitriev-Kavkazsky Lev Evgrafovich Dobuzhinsky Mstislav Valerianovich Droochsloot Joost Cornelisz Dubovskoy Nikolai Nikanorovich Dujardin Karel Duvieux Henri Ellis Tristram English School Everdingen Allaert van Faed R.S.A. John Feldmann Valentin Augustowitsch Ferg Franz de Paula Filippov Konstantin Nikolaevich Fischer Johann Georg Paul Florentine School Franken Paul von French School Frost George Albert Gabashvili Giorgy Ivanovich (Gigo) Gabbiani Antonio Domenico Gagen Dominik Ernestovich Gascars Henri Gedlek Ludwig Gerlach Otto Goeree Jan Gordon Sir Thomas Edward Gorschelt Fedor Federovich Goyen Jan van Gradovsky N. Grigoriev Boris Dmitrievich Grimaldi, il Bolognese Giovanni Francesco Grimmer Abel Groningen Jan Swart van Guardi Giacomo Guardi Gianantonio Hackaert Jan Hackert Jacob Philipp Harding James Duffield Harlamoff Alexei Alekseevich Havell William Herring Jnr John Frederick Hilair Jean-Baptiste Hoet Gerard Ibbetson Julius Caesar Issupoff Alexei Vladimirovich Ivanov Ivan Andreevich Jankowsky Johann Wilhelm Kalf Willem Kapustin Grigorij Ivanovich Karazin Nikolai Nikolaevich Karlsonn Konstantin Kennington Eric Keuninck the Elder Kerstiaen de Key Adriaen Thomasz. Klodt von Jurgensburg Baron Mikhail Konstantinovich Koerner Ernest Karl Eugen Kolchin Petr Petrovich Kolesnikov Stepan Feodorovich Kollmann Karl Ivanovich Kondratenko Gavril Pavlovich Kotov Nikolai Grigorievich Krachkovsky Josef Evstafievich Kravchenko Aleksey Ilyich Lagorio Lev Felixovich Lallemand Atributed to Jean-Baptiste Lancerey Yevgeny Alexandrovich Landseer Charles Langer Olaf Viggo Peter Lattry Mikhail Pelopidovich Le Prince Jean-Baptiste Lee Frederick Richard Lingelbach Johannes Loo Carle van Loutherbourg, R.A. Philipe-Jacques de Lovatti Count Matteo Ludoviki Pierre Alexandrovich Parisot, called Luti Benedetto Maes Nicolaes Maevsky Mechislav Silvesterovich Maggiotto Domenico Maistre Count Xavier de Mak Paul Makovsky Konstantin Egorovich Makovsky Vladimir Egorovich Maliavin Philip Andreyevich Malyshev Nikolai Tarasievich Man Cornelis de Martos Nikita Ivanovich Martynov Andrey Yefimovich Massys Jan Mathauser Josef McConnell William Michallon Achille Etna Mieris Willem van Molenaer II Jan Molijn Pieter de Mols Robert Charles Gustave Laurens Momper Philippe de Montferrand Auguste Ricard De Moor Carel de Morandi Giovanni Maria Moucheron Frederik de Nash Frederick Neapolitan School Neeffs The Elder Pieter Neyn Pieter de Nikitin Ivan Nikitich Opitz Georg Emmanuel Orizzonte Jan Frans van Bloemen, called Orlov J Orlovsky Alexander Osipovich Ovsyannikov Sergey Osipovich Palmieri Pietro Giacomo Pantoja de la Cruz Juan Parme Jean-Antoine Julien, called Julien de Patersson Benjamin Pavlikevitch J Pellegrini Giovanni Antonio Perez, von Baron Josef Berres Pierre Jean-Baptist-Marie Pillement Jean-Baptiste Piola Domenico Pocock Nicholas Poelenburch Cornelis van Poerson Charles Poplavsky Ludvig Ludvigovich Premazzi Luigi Ossipovich Preziosi Count Amadeo Prianishnikov Ivan Petrovich Quaglio Franz Repin Ilya Yefimovich Repin Yuri Illich Repton Humphrey Richards John Inigo Rocca Michele Roepel Coenraet Rogier Camille Rombouts Salomon Romney George Roubaud Franz Alekseevich Rozhankovsky Pavel Stepanovich Russian School Ruysdael Salomon van Sabatelli Luigi Savitsky Georgy Konstantinovich Schmerling Oskar Schmidt Genrikh Genrikhovich Schongauer Martin School Mid-Sixteenth Century Anglo-Netherlandish School, c.1535 Flemish Schreyer Christian Adolf Schwarz Christoph Sellaer Vincent Shishkin Ivan Ivanovich Siemiradzki Henryk Simpson William Snyders Frans Snyders and Studio Frans Sokolov Pyotr Petrovich Solimena Francesco South Netherlandish School Spranger Bartholomäus Stanfield George Clarkson Stanfield RA Clarkson Stevaerts Palamedes Palamedesz., called Stevens Stone Frank Stoop Maerten Strechine Stephanie von Sustris Lambert Sverchkov Nicholai Egorovich Svetoslavsky Sergei Ivanovich Teniers II David Test Artist Tiepolo Giovanni Battista Tintoretto Domenico Toorenvliet Jacob Traballesi Bartolommeo Trutovsky Konstantin Alexandrovich Turner, R.A. Joseph Mallord William Tweenhuysen II Helmich von Uden Lucas van Valckenborch Lucas van Valentin Emile Vanvitelli Circle of Gaspar van Wittel, called Varley John Vasilev Ivan Vasnetsov Apollinary Mikhailovich Velde Adriaen van de Velde Esaias van de Velde the Younger Willem van de Venetian School Verburgh Dionijs Vereschagin Petr Petrovich Verschuring Hendrik Verschuur Wouter Vickers Alfred Gomersal Vignali Jacopo Villiers de l'Isle Adam Emile Samoilovich Visotsky Konstantin Semeonovich Vladimirov Ivan Alekseevich Vlieger Simon Jacobsz de Voloshin Maksimilian Aleksandrovich Vorobiev Sokrat Maksimovich Vrancx Sebastian Ward James Watteau, called Watteau of Lille Louis-Joseph Webb James Weiss Joseph Andreas Wet I Jacob Willemsz. de Wheatley, R.A. Francis Wijnants Jan Wilson Alexander Wingfield James Digman Wouwerman Philips Wtewael Joachim Anthonisz. Wyck Thomas Yakovlev Aleksandr Evgen'evich Zeeman Reinier Nooms, called Zhukovsky Rudolf Kazimirovich Zommer Richard Karlovich Zucchi Antonio
R

epin Ilya Yefimovich

(Chuguyev, Ukraine 1844 - Kuokkala (modern Repino, near St. Petersburg) 1930)

:) Biography

Studies for Figures on the Nevsky Prospect in St. Petersburg

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Studies for Figures on the Nevsky Prospect in St. Petersburg

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Portrait of Sir George Buchanan, the British Ambassador

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View of Krasnoye Selo

Biography

One of the most celebrated painters of the nineteenth century, Ilya Yefimovich Repin was the leading advocate of the Russian Realist style. Greatly admired for his genre painting, his representations of historical and religious themes, as well as for his portraits of the Russian intelligentsia, he showed great concern in his work for contemporary socio-political issues. Repin’s profound impact on Russian art continued to provide a wealth of inspiration to Russian artists for many years to come.

Repin came from very humble beginnings: as the son of a ‘military settler’, he was born into a lowly peasant class. His early training included work with an icon painter, which in time led to Repin to receive his own commissions from various churches. In 1863 Repin moved to St. Petersburg and by 1864 he had enrolled at the Imperial Academy of Arts. His first major piece, The Raising of Jarius’ Daughter, won him the gold medal in the academic competition of 1871, and with it a travel scholarship. More notably however, it was during this period that Repin commenced work on the Barge Haulers on the Volga. When it was finally exhibited in 1873 Repin’s Barge Haulers on the Volga aroused great public interest. It marked a change in Russian painting and a move towards social realism and the depiction of the grim hardship of working class life. Barge Haulers on the Volga remains one of Repin’s greatest masterpieces, one that he later considered to be his first professional painting and which helped cement his reputation as a documenter of social and political inequalities. With this painting, he defined himself as the future master and leader of critical realism.

In a letter to the editor of the St. Petersburg Gazette, in 1873, Vladimir Stasov said of Barge Haulers on the Volga: ‘with a daring that is unprecedented amongst us [Repin] has abandoned all former conceptions of the ideal in art, and has plunged head first into the very heart of the people’s life, the people’s interests, and the people’s oppressive reality... no one in Russia has ever dared to take on such a subject... in the plan and expression of his painting Mr. Repin is an important, powerful artist and thinker, but as well as this he also wields the tools of his art with such strength, beauty and perfection as does scarcely any other Russian artist... for this reason it is impossible not to foresee the richest of artistic futures for this young artist’.

Repin left Russia in 1873 on his travel scholarship, which took him to Italy and Paris. It was there that he rented a studio in Montmartre. His immediate circle of Russian expatriates at this time included Ivan Turgenev (1818-1883), Vasily Polenov (1844-1927), and Konstantin Savitsky (1844-1905). Whilst in Paris he also gained the acquaintance of Camille Saint-Saëns (1835-1921) and Émile Zola (1840-1902) and a familiarity with contemporary trends, in particular the work of Édouard Manet (1832-1883). At this time French art had begun to depart from the work of the Realists and move towards Impressionism. Repin, however, remained a Realist, although stylistically one can see an influence of the new style on his work, particularly in his use of light.

Repin returned to St. Petersburg in July 1876 and a few years later, in 1878, he joined the Peredvizhniki, or ‘The Wanderers’. Not only did ‘The Wanderers’ mark a stylistic revolution in Russian art but they also epitomised a change in artistic thought, and on how art was viewed and received. Their aims included the aesthetic goal of forming a new artistic sense and taste, the economic objective of attracting new buyers in order to have a market for the new art, and the enlightenment of people by allowing them an opportunity to learn about the new Russian art. By exhibiting their works throughout the provinces, the Peredvizhniki made their art accessible to all. From 1871 to 1923 the society arranged forty eight mobile exhibitions in St. Petersburg and Moscow, which subsequently travelled to Kiev, Kharkov, Kazan, Orel, Riga, Odessa and other cities. In this way Repin’s art was exhibited to the masses, and in return, the masses appreciated his work, for Repin understood and represented their concerns. By this point, Repin’s oeuvre had developed to reflect the political mood of this era, and he applied his realistic style to political concerns and social realism. In particular, his works were centred on the Russian revolutionary movement: Arrest of a Propagandist, Refusal to Confess and They Did Not Expect Him are three examples. These themes were also mirrored by the great Russian authors of the time, such as Tolstoy (1828-1910) and Dostoevsky (1821-1881).

They Did Not Expect Him, is considered by critics to be the finest achievement of the Peredvizhniki social point of view of and is an excellent example of Repin’s brilliance at capturing emotion. The painting depicts a family stunned by the unexpected return of a political exile: the exiled man, clutching his hat, hesitates in the middle of the room, but instantly catches recognition in his mother’s gaze. The frail woman rises from her armchair in surprise. His wife, at the piano, stops playing. The little girl at the table looks at the figure suspiciously, not remembering her father, but the boy recognises him instantly, his face beaming. The way Repin has carefully placed the figures in the setting allows the viewer’s eyes to follow the direction of the floor-boards and see the exiled man immediately. It has been suggested that the use of the floor-boards and their exaggerated perspective is an influence of Edgar Degas (1834-1917). The luminous quality of the work makes this scene joyous, despite the seriousness of the topic and the work’s obvious political overtones, and hints at the influence of the Impressionists.

In the summer of 1879 Repin stayed at Abramtsevo, the artists’ colony set up by the wealthy Russian patron Savva Mamontov (1841-1918), whom Repin had previously met during his stay in Paris in the early 1870s. The colony sought to recapture the quality and spirit of traditional Russian art. Through exploring folklore and medieval Russian art, the artists were encouraged to celebrate their national heritage. Whilst there Repin painted various scenes of peasant life and from this period of Slavic Revival he also produced The Zaporozhian Cossacks, and was further moved to depict the Russian legends, exemplified by several versions representing the legendary hero Sadko.

Repin’s artistic repertoire also included portrait painting, such as Fedor Chaliapin. He was praised for his ability to observe the character and psychology of his sitter and communicate their true personality. This skill is demonstrated in the series of portraits he executed of the literary luminary, Tolstoy. In Portrait of Leo Tolstoy as a Ploughman on a Field, Repin portrays Tolstoy as a peasant working the land, showing a simple man who is at one with his motherland. It is both a humble work and one of national pride. Equally, his portrait of the terminally ill Modest Mussorgsky, painted in 1881 during the composer’s last dying days in hospital, is one of frank observation, but also instils the viewer with a great sense of compassion.

Later in his life, Repin returned to the Imperial Academy of Arts, where he taught from 1894 until 1907. By this time he had moved to his estate, Penaty, which he designed himself, in the Finnish village of Kuokall situated outside of St. Petersburg. This estate soon became an established centre of Russian artistic and literary activity in the early twentieth century. Following the 1917 October Revolution, Finland declared independence and Repin was invited to return to his homeland, but he refused and remained in Penaty till his death in 1930. His last painting, a joyous and exuberant canvas called The Hopak, was on a Ukrainian Cossack theme.

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Ilya Yefimovich Repin (1844 - 1930)