:) :)
By alphabetical order :)
Adam Albrecht Aivazovsky Ivan Konstantinovich Aladar Padly Backer Jacob de Backhuysen Ludolph Balen I Hendrick van Barker of Bath Thomas Bassano Jacopo Bassano II Francesco Baumgartner-Stoiloff Adolf (Constantin) Beer I. de Begeyn Abraham Jansz. Benois Albert Nikolayevich Benois Nikolai Leontjewitsch Berchem Nicholaes Berckheyde Gerrit Adriaensz. Blaas Julius von Bloemaert Abraham Blommaert Abraham Bogaert Hendrick Bogoliubov Alexei Petrovich Boilly Louis Léopold Boissieu Jean-Jacques de Boitmanis Ulrihs Bordone Paris Borisov Alexander Alekseevich Bossche Balthasar van den Bossoli Carlo Boudewijns Adraen Frans Bough Samuel Bray Jan de Brewer Henry Charles Bristow Edmund Broeck Elias van den Brueghel II Jan Bryullov Karl Pavlovich Burhardt Feodor Karlovich Carlone Giovanni Andrea Casanova Francesco Giuseppe Casteels Pauwels Castro Lorenzo A. Cats Jacob Charlemagne Adolphe Josefovich Charlemagne Joseph Josefovich Codde Pieter Jacobs Cole George Conca Sebastiano Conca Tomasso Maria Cooper Thomas Sidney Cotes, R.A. Francis Cotman Frederick George Craesbeeck Joos van Crampton Sir John Cranach the Elder Lucas Creara Sante Crespi Giuseppe Maria Crome John David Giovanni della Bella Stefano Dmitriev-Kavkazsky Lev Evgrafovich Dobuzhinsky Mstislav Valerianovich Droochsloot Joost Cornelisz Dubovskoy Nikolai Nikanorovich Dujardin Karel Duvieux Henri Ellis Tristram English School Everdingen Allaert van Faed R.S.A. John Feldmann Valentin Augustowitsch Ferg Franz de Paula Filippov Konstantin Nikolaevich Fischer Johann Georg Paul Florentine School Franken Paul von French School Frost George Albert Gabashvili Giorgy Ivanovich (Gigo) Gabbiani Antonio Domenico Gagen Dominik Ernestovich Gascars Henri Gedlek Ludwig Gerlach Otto Goeree Jan Gordon Sir Thomas Edward Gorschelt Fedor Federovich Goyen Jan van Gradovsky N. Grigoriev Boris Dmitrievich Grimaldi, il Bolognese Giovanni Francesco Grimmer Abel Groningen Jan Swart van Guardi Giacomo Guardi Gianantonio Hackaert Jan Hackert Jacob Philipp Harding James Duffield Harlamoff Alexei Alekseevich Havell William Herring Jnr John Frederick Hilair Jean-Baptiste Hoet Gerard Ibbetson Julius Caesar Issupoff Alexei Vladimirovich Ivanov Ivan Andreevich Jankowsky Johann Wilhelm Kalf Willem Kapustin Grigorij Ivanovich Karazin Nikolai Nikolaevich Karlsonn Konstantin Kennington Eric Keuninck the Elder Kerstiaen de Key Adriaen Thomasz. Klodt von Jurgensburg Baron Mikhail Konstantinovich Koerner Ernest Karl Eugen Kolchin Petr Petrovich Kolesnikov Stepan Feodorovich Kollmann Karl Ivanovich Kondratenko Gavril Pavlovich Kotov Nikolai Grigorievich Krachkovsky Josef Evstafievich Kravchenko Aleksey Ilyich Lagorio Lev Felixovich Lallemand Atributed to Jean-Baptiste Lancerey Yevgeny Alexandrovich Landseer Charles Langer Olaf Viggo Peter Lattry Mikhail Pelopidovich Le Prince Jean-Baptiste Lee Frederick Richard Lingelbach Johannes Loo Carle van Loutherbourg, R.A. Philipe-Jacques de Lovatti Count Matteo Ludoviki Pierre Alexandrovich Parisot, called Luti Benedetto Maes Nicolaes Maevsky Mechislav Silvesterovich Maggiotto Domenico Maistre Count Xavier de Mak Paul Makovsky Konstantin Egorovich Makovsky Vladimir Egorovich Maliavin Philip Andreyevich Malyshev Nikolai Tarasievich Man Cornelis de Martos Nikita Ivanovich Martynov Andrey Yefimovich Massys Jan Mathauser Josef McConnell William Michallon Achille Etna Mieris Willem van Molenaer II Jan Molijn Pieter de Mols Robert Charles Gustave Laurens Momper Philippe de Montferrand Auguste Ricard De Moor Carel de Morandi Giovanni Maria Moucheron Frederik de Nash Frederick Neapolitan School Neeffs The Elder Pieter Neyn Pieter de Nikitin Ivan Nikitich Opitz Georg Emmanuel Orizzonte Jan Frans van Bloemen, called Orlov J Orlovsky Alexander Osipovich Ovsyannikov Sergey Osipovich Palmieri Pietro Giacomo Pantoja de la Cruz Juan Parme Jean-Antoine Julien, called Julien de Patersson Benjamin Pavlikevitch J Pellegrini Giovanni Antonio Perez, von Baron Josef Berres Pierre Jean-Baptist-Marie Pillement Jean-Baptiste Piola Domenico Pocock Nicholas Poelenburch Cornelis van Poerson Charles Poplavsky Ludvig Ludvigovich Premazzi Luigi Ossipovich Preziosi Count Amadeo Prianishnikov Ivan Petrovich Quaglio Franz Repin Ilya Yefimovich Repin Yuri Illich Repton Humphrey Richards John Inigo Rocca Michele Roepel Coenraet Rogier Camille Rombouts Salomon Romney George Roubaud Franz Alekseevich Rozhankovsky Pavel Stepanovich Russian School Ruysdael Salomon van Sabatelli Luigi Savitsky Georgy Konstantinovich Schmerling Oskar Schmidt Genrikh Genrikhovich Schongauer Martin School Mid-Sixteenth Century Anglo-Netherlandish School, c.1535 Flemish Schreyer Christian Adolf Schwarz Christoph Sellaer Vincent Shishkin Ivan Ivanovich Siemiradzki Henryk Simpson William Snyders Frans Snyders and Studio Frans Sokolov Pyotr Petrovich Solimena Francesco South Netherlandish School Spranger Bartholomäus Stanfield George Clarkson Stanfield RA Clarkson Stevaerts Palamedes Palamedesz., called Stevens Stone Frank Stoop Maerten Strechine Stephanie von Sustris Lambert Sverchkov Nicholai Egorovich Svetoslavsky Sergei Ivanovich Teniers II David Test Artist Tiepolo Giovanni Battista Tintoretto Domenico Toorenvliet Jacob Traballesi Bartolommeo Trutovsky Konstantin Alexandrovich Turner, R.A. Joseph Mallord William Tweenhuysen II Helmich von Uden Lucas van Valckenborch Lucas van Valentin Emile Vanvitelli Circle of Gaspar van Wittel, called Varley John Vasilev Ivan Vasnetsov Apollinary Mikhailovich Velde Adriaen van de Velde Esaias van de Velde the Younger Willem van de Venetian School Verburgh Dionijs Vereschagin Petr Petrovich Verschuring Hendrik Verschuur Wouter Vickers Alfred Gomersal Vignali Jacopo Villiers de l'Isle Adam Emile Samoilovich Visotsky Konstantin Semeonovich Vladimirov Ivan Alekseevich Vlieger Simon Jacobsz de Voloshin Maksimilian Aleksandrovich Vorobiev Sokrat Maksimovich Vrancx Sebastian Ward James Watteau, called Watteau of Lille Louis-Joseph Webb James Weiss Joseph Andreas Wet I Jacob Willemsz. de Wheatley, R.A. Francis Wijnants Jan Wilson Alexander Wingfield James Digman Wouwerman Philips Wtewael Joachim Anthonisz. Wyck Thomas Yakovlev Aleksandr Evgen'evich Zeeman Reinier Nooms, called Zhukovsky Rudolf Kazimirovich Zommer Richard Karlovich Zucchi Antonio
Adam Albrecht Aivazovsky Ivan Konstantinovich Aladar Padly Backer Jacob de Backhuysen Ludolph Balen I Hendrick van Barker of Bath Thomas Bassano Jacopo Bassano II Francesco Baumgartner-Stoiloff Adolf (Constantin) Beer I. de Begeyn Abraham Jansz. Benois Albert Nikolayevich Benois Nikolai Leontjewitsch Berchem Nicholaes Berckheyde Gerrit Adriaensz. Blaas Julius von Bloemaert Abraham Blommaert Abraham Bogaert Hendrick Bogoliubov Alexei Petrovich Boilly Louis Léopold Boissieu Jean-Jacques de Boitmanis Ulrihs Bordone Paris Borisov Alexander Alekseevich Bossche Balthasar van den Bossoli Carlo Boudewijns Adraen Frans Bough Samuel Bray Jan de Brewer Henry Charles Bristow Edmund Broeck Elias van den Brueghel II Jan Bryullov Karl Pavlovich Burhardt Feodor Karlovich Carlone Giovanni Andrea Casanova Francesco Giuseppe Casteels Pauwels Castro Lorenzo A. Cats Jacob Charlemagne Adolphe Josefovich Charlemagne Joseph Josefovich Codde Pieter Jacobs Cole George Conca Sebastiano Conca Tomasso Maria Cooper Thomas Sidney Cotes, R.A. Francis Cotman Frederick George Craesbeeck Joos van Crampton Sir John Cranach the Elder Lucas Creara Sante Crespi Giuseppe Maria Crome John David Giovanni della Bella Stefano Dmitriev-Kavkazsky Lev Evgrafovich Dobuzhinsky Mstislav Valerianovich Droochsloot Joost Cornelisz Dubovskoy Nikolai Nikanorovich Dujardin Karel Duvieux Henri Ellis Tristram English School Everdingen Allaert van Faed R.S.A. John Feldmann Valentin Augustowitsch Ferg Franz de Paula Filippov Konstantin Nikolaevich Fischer Johann Georg Paul Florentine School Franken Paul von French School Frost George Albert Gabashvili Giorgy Ivanovich (Gigo) Gabbiani Antonio Domenico Gagen Dominik Ernestovich Gascars Henri Gedlek Ludwig Gerlach Otto Goeree Jan Gordon Sir Thomas Edward Gorschelt Fedor Federovich Goyen Jan van Gradovsky N. Grigoriev Boris Dmitrievich Grimaldi, il Bolognese Giovanni Francesco Grimmer Abel Groningen Jan Swart van Guardi Giacomo Guardi Gianantonio Hackaert Jan Hackert Jacob Philipp Harding James Duffield Harlamoff Alexei Alekseevich Havell William Herring Jnr John Frederick Hilair Jean-Baptiste Hoet Gerard Ibbetson Julius Caesar Issupoff Alexei Vladimirovich Ivanov Ivan Andreevich Jankowsky Johann Wilhelm Kalf Willem Kapustin Grigorij Ivanovich Karazin Nikolai Nikolaevich Karlsonn Konstantin Kennington Eric Keuninck the Elder Kerstiaen de Key Adriaen Thomasz. Klodt von Jurgensburg Baron Mikhail Konstantinovich Koerner Ernest Karl Eugen Kolchin Petr Petrovich Kolesnikov Stepan Feodorovich Kollmann Karl Ivanovich Kondratenko Gavril Pavlovich Kotov Nikolai Grigorievich Krachkovsky Josef Evstafievich Kravchenko Aleksey Ilyich Lagorio Lev Felixovich Lallemand Atributed to Jean-Baptiste Lancerey Yevgeny Alexandrovich Landseer Charles Langer Olaf Viggo Peter Lattry Mikhail Pelopidovich Le Prince Jean-Baptiste Lee Frederick Richard Lingelbach Johannes Loo Carle van Loutherbourg, R.A. Philipe-Jacques de Lovatti Count Matteo Ludoviki Pierre Alexandrovich Parisot, called Luti Benedetto Maes Nicolaes Maevsky Mechislav Silvesterovich Maggiotto Domenico Maistre Count Xavier de Mak Paul Makovsky Konstantin Egorovich Makovsky Vladimir Egorovich Maliavin Philip Andreyevich Malyshev Nikolai Tarasievich Man Cornelis de Martos Nikita Ivanovich Martynov Andrey Yefimovich Massys Jan Mathauser Josef McConnell William Michallon Achille Etna Mieris Willem van Molenaer II Jan Molijn Pieter de Mols Robert Charles Gustave Laurens Momper Philippe de Montferrand Auguste Ricard De Moor Carel de Morandi Giovanni Maria Moucheron Frederik de Nash Frederick Neapolitan School Neeffs The Elder Pieter Neyn Pieter de Nikitin Ivan Nikitich Opitz Georg Emmanuel Orizzonte Jan Frans van Bloemen, called Orlov J Orlovsky Alexander Osipovich Ovsyannikov Sergey Osipovich Palmieri Pietro Giacomo Pantoja de la Cruz Juan Parme Jean-Antoine Julien, called Julien de Patersson Benjamin Pavlikevitch J Pellegrini Giovanni Antonio Perez, von Baron Josef Berres Pierre Jean-Baptist-Marie Pillement Jean-Baptiste Piola Domenico Pocock Nicholas Poelenburch Cornelis van Poerson Charles Poplavsky Ludvig Ludvigovich Premazzi Luigi Ossipovich Preziosi Count Amadeo Prianishnikov Ivan Petrovich Quaglio Franz Repin Ilya Yefimovich Repin Yuri Illich Repton Humphrey Richards John Inigo Rocca Michele Roepel Coenraet Rogier Camille Rombouts Salomon Romney George Roubaud Franz Alekseevich Rozhankovsky Pavel Stepanovich Russian School Ruysdael Salomon van Sabatelli Luigi Savitsky Georgy Konstantinovich Schmerling Oskar Schmidt Genrikh Genrikhovich Schongauer Martin School Mid-Sixteenth Century Anglo-Netherlandish School, c.1535 Flemish Schreyer Christian Adolf Schwarz Christoph Sellaer Vincent Shishkin Ivan Ivanovich Siemiradzki Henryk Simpson William Snyders Frans Snyders and Studio Frans Sokolov Pyotr Petrovich Solimena Francesco South Netherlandish School Spranger Bartholomäus Stanfield George Clarkson Stanfield RA Clarkson Stevaerts Palamedes Palamedesz., called Stevens Stone Frank Stoop Maerten Strechine Stephanie von Sustris Lambert Sverchkov Nicholai Egorovich Svetoslavsky Sergei Ivanovich Teniers II David Test Artist Tiepolo Giovanni Battista Tintoretto Domenico Toorenvliet Jacob Traballesi Bartolommeo Trutovsky Konstantin Alexandrovich Turner, R.A. Joseph Mallord William Tweenhuysen II Helmich von Uden Lucas van Valckenborch Lucas van Valentin Emile Vanvitelli Circle of Gaspar van Wittel, called Varley John Vasilev Ivan Vasnetsov Apollinary Mikhailovich Velde Adriaen van de Velde Esaias van de Velde the Younger Willem van de Venetian School Verburgh Dionijs Vereschagin Petr Petrovich Verschuring Hendrik Verschuur Wouter Vickers Alfred Gomersal Vignali Jacopo Villiers de l'Isle Adam Emile Samoilovich Visotsky Konstantin Semeonovich Vladimirov Ivan Alekseevich Vlieger Simon Jacobsz de Voloshin Maksimilian Aleksandrovich Vorobiev Sokrat Maksimovich Vrancx Sebastian Ward James Watteau, called Watteau of Lille Louis-Joseph Webb James Weiss Joseph Andreas Wet I Jacob Willemsz. de Wheatley, R.A. Francis Wijnants Jan Wilson Alexander Wingfield James Digman Wouwerman Philips Wtewael Joachim Anthonisz. Wyck Thomas Yakovlev Aleksandr Evgen'evich Zeeman Reinier Nooms, called Zhukovsky Rudolf Kazimirovich Zommer Richard Karlovich Zucchi Antonio
A

ivazovsky Ivan Konstantinovich

(Feodosija 1817 - Feodosija 1900)

:) Biography

Shipwreck

:)

Shipwreck

:)

A Strong Wind

Biography

Aivazovsky's success was well-earned, for no other artist managed to capture with such brilliance, conviction and apparent ease that most difficult of subjects for the painter - the changing moods of the sea. He was a professional marine painter who spent much time by the sea and loved it deeply. Although he turned occasionally to other art forms such as landscapes and portraiture, these were only brief departures from his chosen genre to which he remained faithful all his life.

When Aivazovsky began his career, Russian art was still dominated by Romanticism and it was the romantic mood which set the terms for Russian landscape painting in the second half of the nineteenth century. It is scarcely surprising then to discover romantic elements both in Aivazovsky's early works, and in the majority of his later ones. One reflection of this is his choice of subjects: again and again we find him depicting shipwrecks, raging sea battles and storms.

Aivazovsky continued in the tradition of the great Russian landscape painters of the early nineteenth century without recourse to imitation. He created a new tradition, a new school of painting, thus making his mark on the marine painting of his own and subsequent generations.

Apart from his work as an artist, Aivazovsky was a tireless and versatile public figure: he took an eager interest in world events and sympathised deeply with small nations struggling for their independence. At the same time he worked selflessly for the good of his native town and did much to assist young artists.

Aivazovsky was born on 17 July 1817 (29 July New Style) in the ancient Crimean town of Theodosia. Some early drawings attracted the attention of A. Kaznacheyev, the town-governor, who helped Aivazovsky to enter the high school at Simferopol and in 1833, the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts.

The great success of Karl Bryullov's picture The Last Day of Pompeii made a lasting impression on Aivazovsky, summing up as it did the victory of the Romantic school in Russian painting. Both the picture and Bryullov himself played an important part in stimulating Aivazovsky's own creative development. Furthermore, Aivazovsky was brought up in the romantic spirit by his teacher in the Academy landscape class, M. Vorobyov. In general Russian art of the first half of the nineteenth century combined Romanticism with Realism and very often both principles found expression in an artist's works. This was especially evident in landscape painting, an essentially realist art form which continued romantic features for a long time. Aivazovsky acquired a romantic outlook in his student years and maintained it in maturity. He remained to the end one of the most faithful disciples of Romanticism, although this did not prevent him from evolving his own form of realism.

In October 1837 Aivazovsky completed his studies at the Academy and received the great gold medal, which gave him the right to a prolonged course of study abroad at the expense of the Academy. Bearing in mind the peculiar nature of Aivazovsky's gift, the Council of the Academy took an unusual decision. To begin with, the artist was to be sent to the Crimea for two summers; there he was to perfect his skills in his chosen genre by painting views of the coastal towns while sending his pictures each year to the Academy. Only after this was he to leave for Italy.

While still a student, Aivazovsky had been attracted by the romance of sea battles and the proud beauty of sailing ships. His work in Sauerweid's class and participation in the exercises of the Baltic Sea fleet had encouraged him still further. In the Crimea Aivazovsky now had the chance to return to his favourite themes. The commander of the Caucasus Coast Line, N. Rayevsky suggested to Aivazovsky that he take part in the exercises of the Black Sea fleet. During 1839 he went to sea three times, painted a great deal from nature, and made the acquaintance of admirals M. Lazarev, V. Kornilov and P. Nakhimov.

During a trip to Italy in 1842 the famous English marine painter, Joseph Mallord William Turner was so struck by the picture The Bay of Naples on a Moonlit Night that he dedicated a rhymed eulogy in Italian to Aivazovsky:

In this your picture
Of a mighty king!

I see the moon, all gold and silver.
Forgive me if I err, great artist,

Reflected in the sea below...
Your picture has entranced me so,

And on the surface of the sea
Reality and art are one,

There plays a breeze which leaves a trail
And I am all amazement.

Of trembling ripples, like a shower
So noble, powerful is the art

Of fiery sparks or else the gleaming headdress
That only genius could inspire!

Aivazovsky enjoyed equal success when he brought his pictures to Paris in 1842, having been granted permission from the Academy. The Council of the Paris Academy awarded him first their gold medal, then, in 1857, the Legion of Honour—an order rarely conferred on foreigners. Horace Vernet, the well-known French battle-painter, told Aivazovsky that his talent was a credit to his native land.

Aivazovsky's unusual ability to be true to nature amazed his contemporaries, particularly his ability to convey the effect of moving water and of reflected sun, as well as moonlight. In short it was his accurate, but at the same time highly-charged and dramatic depiction of the sea that was most striking. However, Aivazovsky took some time to discover the secret of creating such impressive images. All his student years and the beginning of his foreign scholarship had been devoted to the pursuit of his technique.

In 1844 Aivazovsky asked permission to return home prematurely from his European tour and he set off for Russia via Holland. In Amsterdam he organized an exhibition of his pictures; it was a great success and the Amsterdam Academy honoured him with the title of academician. Once back in St. Petersburg, the Council of the Academy also bestowed on him the title of academician and by the Tsar's edict he was attached to the Chief Naval Staff "with the title of painter to the Staff and with the right to wear the uniform of the naval ministry". Immediately Aivazovsky was commissioned to paint views of Kronstadt, Revel (now Tallinn) and other places on the Baltic coast. The result was a series of large-scale canvases in which Aivazovsky succeeded in combining accurate topographical information with a poetic mood.

Some forty years after settling permanently in Theodosia, Aivazovsky financed the erection of the picture gallery there which bears his name. It now houses 130 pictures and 270 sketches by Aivazovsky himself, as well as works by Lagorio, Vessler, Latri, Voloshin, Bogayevsky and others connected with the eastern Crimea, a place of ancient culture and severe but picturesque landscapes.

The years 1846 to 1848 witness a series of outstanding canvases devoted to battles at sea, all based on the heroic past of the Russian fleet, for example, The Battle of Chesme, depicting a sea battle at night. The defeated Turkish fleet set alight by a Russian fire-ship is an unusually impressive spectacle, Aivazovsky's mastery of light effects being used to the full.

Aivazovsky maintained his capacity for work, his energy and lively creative intelligence until the very end of his life. All in all he painted more than 6,000 pictures and a multitude of skillfully executed drawings.

Collections
Aivazovsky is represented in the following collections: Hermitage, St. Petersburg; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City; National Gallery of Armenia, Yerevan; State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg; Muzeum Sztuki, Lodz, Poland; Philadelphia Museum of Art; Schleswig-Holstein Museums, Germany; Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, amongst others.

:)
Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (1817 - 1900)